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Prof. B.D.Tripathi


National Ganga River Basin Authority, Govt. of India &

State Ganga River Conservation Authority, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh

Founder Coordinator, Environmental Science & Technology, Banaras Hindu University


Dr. Smriti Tripathi

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005


River Ganga is the basis of life. During past few decades, unplanned urbanization and fast growing industrialization has imposed a serious threat on surface water as well as ground water quality. A general survey of river Ganga was conducted to assess the water quality fluctuation at Varanasi. The pollution load on the river was investigated at different sampling sites. The results revealed that the river Ganga water quality was deteriorated due to presence of sewage, industrial waste, human and animal carcasses etc. It was also observed that the BOD values which are suppose to be less than 3.0 mgL-1 raised to 18.5 mgL-1 on the bathing ghats and DO content of water which must be more than 5.0 mgL-1 is reduced to 2.5 mgL-1. Presence of numerous toxic chemicals such as Iron, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Chromium, Nickel and Cadmium also indicates unhygienic condition of the Ganga water. Microbiological examination of Ganga water has revealed the presence of numerous bacterial species such as Total coliform (25.4 x 103 /100 ml), Fecal coliform (20.9 x 103 /100 ml), Fecal Streptococci (93 /100 ml). Government efforts to clean up the river have failed due to poor planning, technological mismanagement and corruption. Lack of public awareness and poverty fuels the problem. The present paper also suggests some prevention measures toimprove the water quality of River Ganga.